My Hiding Place (Hosea 6)

The political resurrection of Israel may dimly shadow forth, by way of type, the resurrection of Messiah and the general resurrection of which he is the Firstfruits.

Spence-Jones, H. D. M. (Ed.). (1909). Hosea (p. 167). London; New York: Funk & Wagnalls Company.

He hath smitten, and he will bind us up. The language is figurative, and borrowed from medical science. Jehovah, not Jareb nor any sovereign of Assyria, is the physician. Long before he had assured his people Israel of this, saying, “I am the Lord that healeth thee” (Exod. 15:26); and again, “I kill, and I make alive; I would, and I heal” (Deut. 32:39). Aben Ezra, commenting on yachbeshena, alludes to the ancient mode of surgical practice, probably as indicated in Isa. 1:6: “A wound needs to be pressed out and bound up, and afterwards softened with oil.”

Spence-Jones, H. D. M. (Ed.). (1909). Hosea (p. 166). London; New York: Funk & Wagnalls Company.

The important idea of this verse connects itself with the terms corresponding to revival, resurrection, and restoration to the Divine favour and protection. The drooping, declining, dying state of Israel would be revived; their deathlike condition would undergo a resurrection process; their disfavour would give way to Divine complacency; and all this, though not immediately, yet in a comparatively short time. This appears to us the import of the prophecy.

Spence-Jones, H. D. M. (Ed.). (1909). Hosea (p. 166). London; New York: Funk & Wagnalls Company.

Both the Rabbinical interpretations of these numbers (e.g., that they relate to the three captivities, the Egyptian, the Babylonish, and the Roman) and the Christian, according to which Christ’s resurrection on the third day is indicated, are naturally inadmissible. The latter is excluded even by the words themselves. Israel is the subject of discourse: “it is torn, smitten, slain”; nothing is said of the exile itself, but in general there is set forth the termination of its existence as a people through the divine judgment (which to be sure was brought to pass by means of the exile). Israel expects, in the event of conversion, to be delivered from this situation and to be restored, and that speedily. It is naturally not the awakening of the physically dead that is announced; but it is a significant fact, that such an awakening is employed to illustrate the restoration of Israel, for it may lead us to infer that such a belief lay not far from the Prophet’s mind.

Lange, J. P., Schaff, P., Schmoller, O., & McCurdy, J. F. (2008). A commentary on the Holy Scriptures: Hosea (p. 61). Bellingham, WA: Logos Bible Software.

Hosea 6:1-3

I have hewed them by the prophets; I have slain them by the words of my mouth. The language is figurative—the first clause seems borrowed from hewing hard wood and shaping it so as to assume the required form; so God dealt with Israel to bring them into shape morally symmetrical, and make them correspond to the character of a holy people. The slaying is metaphorical, and consisted in the denunciation of death and destruction to the impenitent; in this way he killed, but did not make alive.

Spence-Jones, H. D. M. (Ed.). (1909). Hosea (p. 168). London; New York: Funk & Wagnalls Company.

hewn
2933 I. חָצֵב (ḥā·ṣēḇ): v.; ≡ Str 2672; TWOT 718—1. LN 19.55 (qal) dig, i.e., make a hole in dirt, shallow or deep by means of a scooping implement or with the hands or feet (Dt 6:11b; 8:9; 2Ch 26:10; Jer 2:13+); (qal pass.) be dug (Dt 6:11a; Ne 9:25+); 2. LN 19.14–19.26 (qal) hew, i.e., cut an object off or out of another main object (1Ch 22:2; Pr 9:1; Isa 5:2; 10:15; 22:16(2×); Hos 6:5+); (pual) be cut out (Isa 51:1+); (hif) cut in pieces (Isa 51:9+); 3. LN 33.35–33.68 (nif) be engraved, be carved, i.e., cut or incise letters or designs (Job 19:24+)
Swanson, J. (1997). Dictionary of Biblical Languages with Semantic Domains : Hebrew (Old Testament) (electronic ed.). Oak Harbor: Logos Research Systems, Inc.
חָצַבּ & חָצֵבּ fut. יַחְצֹב—(1) TO CUT, TO HEW OUT, especially stones (compare חָטַב) Deut. 6:11; 8:9; Isa. 5:2; 10:15; 22:16; Proverbs 9:1. Part. חֹצֵב a stone cutter, 2 Ki. 12:13; also a wood cutter, Isa. 10:15; used of both, 1 Ki. 5:29. Metaph. Psa. 29:7, “the voice of Jehovah cutteth out flames of fire;” i.e. sends out divided flames of fire.
(2) figuratively, to destroy, to slay. Hos. 6:5, חָצַבְתִּי בַּנְּבִיאִים “I have hewed (them) by the prophets;” i.e. I have declared to them death and destruction. In the other member there is הֲרַגְתִּים.
Niphal, to be graven (on stones), Job 19:24.
Pual, to be hewn out, i.e. to be formed, Isa. 51:1.
Hiphil, i.q. Kal No. 2. Isa. 51:9.
Derivative מַחְצֵב.Gesenius, W., & Tregelles, S. P. (2003). Gesenius’ Hebrew and Chaldee lexicon to the Old Testament Scriptures (p. 298). Bellingham, WA: Logos Bible Software

I have hewed them by the prophets; I have slain them by the words of my mouth. The language is figurative—the first clause seems borrowed from hewing hard wood and shaping it so as to assume the required form; so God dealt with Israel to bring them into shape morally symmetrical, and make them correspond to the character of a holy people. The slaying is metaphorical, and consisted in the denunciation of death and destruction to the impenitent; in this way he killed, but did not make alive.

Spence-Jones, H. D. M. (Ed.). (1909). Hosea (p. 168). London; New York: Funk & Wagnalls Company.

 

The former is the right state of the life, the latter the correct condition of the heart; the former manifests itself in practice, the latter embraces the proper feelings and affections; the former is seen in works of charity and benevolence, the latter consists in right motives and the right relation of the soul to God. The Hebrew form of speech here used denotes inferior importance, not the negation of importance. A similar sentiment occurs in 1 Sam. 15:22, “Hath the Lord as great delight in burnt offerings and sacrifices, as in obeying the voice of the Lord? Behold, to obey is better than sacrifice, and to hearken than the fat of rams.” Parallel statements are found in Isa. 1:11–17; Ps. 40:7–9 and 50:8; also in Micah 6:8.

Spence-Jones, H. D. M. (Ed.). (1909). Hosea (pp. 168–169). London; New York: Funk & Wagnalls Company

6 For I desire steadfast love and not sacrifice,
the knowledge of God rather than burnt offerings.

The Holy Bible: English Standard Version. (2001). (Ho 6:6). Wheaton: Standard Bible Society.

This says it all after all the depravity of Israel then and mankind today.
This is all the LORD wants. And still, man still finds this so hard to do. I wonder why. It’s so easy. la

Talents Should be Used Wisely
Excerpt

25:26–27. The master is not impressed with the servant’s excuse. He chides the servant as wicked and lazy (cf. “good and faithful servant,” vv. 21, 23). Such an indictment seriously undermines any claim of purity of motives. This servant simply did not have the inclination to use his resources for productive service on behalf of his master. If he totally believed his master was a shrewd businessman, who fully expected to profit from the sum entrusted to his servants, why did he not at least put the money in the bank so that it might accrue interest? Instead, this servant, driven by fear, put it in the ground, with the result that it profited no one. He failed to realize that once he had received the talent he obligated himself to use it wisely.
25:28–30. The failure to use his talent responsibly results in its being taken from him and given to the one having ten talents. This illustrates the principle of verse 29 (cf. 17:12), summarized by Schweizer: “where God’s gift has already borne fruit, God gives in superabundance; where it has remained fruitless, it is lost completely. This means that God’s gift can never be passively possessed; it is like a muscle: it must be worked and stretched or it withers.”9 Ultimately, the fate of such a worthless servant is complete banishment, followed by severe punishment (cf. 8:12; 13:42, 50). This parable, like the previous, calls for a committed resolve to be diligent in service while the master is away.

Chouinard, L. (1997). Matthew (Mt 25:26–30). Joplin, MO: College Press.

Life is not as easy as it seems, right.
hahahahahahahahaha
Use my talents.

🙂
You gotta look at this from many angles.

 

 

I’m so blessed right. I do not have walk alone in this journey called life and there are so many walking along with me. Mature in the Lord, teaching me, guiding me. Exhorting me. Disciplining me. Carving me into whom the Lord desires of me to be. Shaping me. Loving me. Honoring the Lord’s calling in my life.
🙂
I’ve got to grow up and be like one of them. la

return – word study

(šûb). vb. to turn, to return. Refers to turning toward or away from something, often used with the sense of turning away from God (apostasy) or turning back toward God (repentance).
While šûb is used for physical movement (Gen 18:14; 22:5), and while it is used sometimes in later literature to refer to the nation’s return from exile (e.g., Ezra 2:1; Neh 7:6; 1 Kgs 8:34; Jer 12:15), it is most often used in covenantal contexts to refer to God’s people either turning away from God (Num 32:15; Josh 22:21–29; Judg 2:19; 1 Sam 15:11; 1 Kgs 9:6; Jer 8:4–5; Psa 126:1) or to God’s people turning back to God from sin (Jer 8:4–5; Ezek 14:6). Some forms are also used with God as the subject to indicate God’s “restoring” his people.

Jones, M. R. (2014). Apostasy. D. Mangum, D. R. Brown, R. Klippenstein, & R. Hurst (Eds.), Lexham Theological Wordbook. Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press.

loyalty

2876 II. חֶסֶד (ḥě·sěḏ): n.masc.; ≡ Str 2617; TWOT 698a—1. LN 25.33–25.58 loyal love, unfailing kindness, devotion, i.e., a love or affection that is steadfast based on a prior relationship (Ex 34:6, 7); 2. LN 79.9–79.17 glory, i.e., lovely appearance (Isa 40:6); 3. LN 88.66–88.74 favor, i.e., the giving benefits (Est 2:9), note: for another interp in Ps 52:3[EB 1], see 2875

Swanson, J. (1997). Dictionary of Biblical Languages with Semantic Domains : Hebrew (Old Testament) (electronic ed.). Oak Harbor: Logos Research Systems, Inc.

 

 

How touching Hosea is. The remembrance of how important it is to know the Lord. To hide in the Lord and to be in His presence all the days of my life. In His Word and His Presence. How accountable we are … and will be judged according to our talents. It’s not about degrees. It’s just all about the Lord. How touching Hosea is when Israel does all that the world is of today. Of course, we seek the mercy of the Lord but judgement is …. just is ….. How blessed …. just how blessed the Lord has surely placed me in His sanctuary since twelve. This is so evident. Moreso … today. The Lord’s passion for His very own people.
O Lord, You are my hiding place ever since You have chosen me to Thine very own child. The bride of Thine beloved Son, Lord Jesus and a friend of Thine Holy Spirit. When I study the Old Testament O Lord, I feel the same way David feels and all the prophets. I feel Your fire by night and Your cloud by day and glory of Thy Divine Glory. When I touch you Lord Jesus, my hands are on fire. The divine fire of Your divine Presence. Thine Holy Presence. If but I could sink into the depths and heights of Thine love forevermore. O but but but ……. I am already here O Lord. Thine Word brings me to my knees. For You Lord, are holy holy holy. A holy God and those who approach You are called by You. Called to this place of absolute bliss in Thine everlasting Presence O Lord God Almighty. O but if my people but feel the same as I do. In your presence I am but nothing. Only Thine exists and by Your grace I exist before You Lord. Exist before for Thine use of Your very own hands. As you desire and wish. O but if my people would feel the same as I do. This presence. This very tangible presence. A LORD God who has no beginning and no end. The great I AM. As the tears fall from the presence of Thine, who art Thou holy holy holy, my hands are on fire. The fire of Thine divine presence O LORD God. Thank You Lord. Thank You Lord for Thine everlasting for me, a no one. Just a wisp in the wind. My face is hot. My cheeks are blushing in Thine presence O Lord. Red hot on fire for Thine love is in me. Blazing in my heart. You have taken my heart and set it on fire for Thee that You have taken into Yourself O Lord God Almighty. Set apart for Thine own use. Thine holy hands. To mold and to hold close to Thine heart. Hosea 6. Hosea 4,5,6. Your journey in my life O Lord.
Psalm 32
Blessedness of Forgiveness and of Trust in God.
 
A Psalm of David. A Maskil.
 
1How blessed is he whose transgression is forgiven,
Whose sin is covered!
 
2How blessed is the man to whom the LORD does not impute iniquity,
And in whose spirit there is no deceit!
 
3When I kept silent about my sin, my body wasted away
Through my groaning all day long.
 
4For day and night Your hand was heavy upon me;
My vitality was drained away as with the fever heat of summer.
 
Selah.
5I acknowledged my sin to You,
And my iniquity I did not hide;
I said, “I will confess my transgressions to the LORD”;
And You forgave the guilt of my sin.
 
Selah.
6Therefore, let everyone who is godly pray to You in a time when You may be found;
Surely in a flood of great waters they will not reach him.
 
7You are my hiding place; You preserve me from trouble;
You surround me with songs of deliverance.
 
Selah.
8I will instruct you and teach you in the way which you should go;
I will counsel you with My eye upon you.
 
9Do not be as the horse or as the mule which have no understanding,
Whose trappings include bit and bridle to hold them in check,
Otherwise they will not come near to you.
 
10Many are the sorrows of the wicked,
But he who trusts in the LORD, lovingkindness shall surround him.
 
11Be glad in the LORD and rejoice, you righteous ones;
And shout for joy, all you who are upright in heart.

Ephraim
713 אֶפְרַיִם (ʾěp̄·rǎ·yim): n.pr.; ≡ Str 669; TWOT 151c—LN 93-pers. (male) Ephraim: 1. son of Joseph (Ge 41:52), see also 718, DBLGrk 2394, 713.5 2. clan named after 1 (Jos 16:8; Jdg 12:4) 3. (gent.) another name for the people of the northern kingdom (Hos 4:17)

אֶפְרַיִם (ʾěp̄·rǎ·yim): n.pr.; ≡ Str 669;—1. LN 93-place (loc.) Ephraim: 1. (land) rugged hill country S of Manasseh, N of Benjamin (Dt 34:2; 2Ch 13:4), note: some interp this with הַר (hǎr) as a specific mountain, most translate as “hill country.” 2. a city near Baal Hazor (2Sa 13:23), note: oth same as 1.; 2. LN 93-place Ephraim Forest: region E of the Jordan River (2Sa 17:26; 18:6); 3. LN 93-place Ephraim Gate (2Ki 14:13; 2Ch 25:23; Ne 8:16; 12:39+)

Swanson, J. (1997). Dictionary of Biblical Languages with Semantic Domains : Hebrew (Old Testament) (electronic ed.). Oak Harbor: Logos Research Systems, Inc.

Sam.M51 ʾifrem: trad. פרה “corn-land”, explained Gn 4152 Hos 1315, (MHb. אַפָּר, JArm.g אפרא pasture land, lw. < Akk.-Sum. appāru marshland AHw. 59 :: Heller VT 12:339f). —Ephraim, Noth Gesch. Isr. 60f; Welt 60f; Simons Geog. §323f; Reicke-R. 420f; —1. eponymous hero of the tribe (→ 2), son of Joseph Gn 4152 4620 481-50:23 1C 720.22; —2. name of a tribe, Manasseh and Ephraim as sons of → Joseph (→ Mowinckel Fschr. Eissfeldt 2:141f, 147f) Nu 110 2628 Jos 164 1717 †; Ephraim alone Ju 129 514 2S 29 Is 920 Ezk 485f Ps 609 803 1089 2C 159 etc.; מַטֵּה אֶ׳ Nu 133 138 Jos 144 215.20 1C 651 †; שֵׁבֶט א׳ Ps 7867 †; מַחֲנֵה אֶ׳ Nu 218.24 1022 †; —3. the northern kingdom, the remainder of Israel (Alt Kl. Schr. 3:299f) Is 72.5.8f.17 98.20 1113 173 281.3 Hos 417-14:9 Jr 319.18.20 Ezk 3716.19 Zech 910.13 107 2C 2510 287 †; —4. n.top., the hill-country of Ephraim: הַר אֶ׳, the whole of the middle range of the mountains W of the Jordan, a part which widens away from the narrow area in the SE (Noth) Jos 1715 Ju 29 1S 11 1K 48 Jr 415 316 5019 1C 652 2C 134 158 194; שְׂדֵה אֶ׳ Ob 19 †; אֶרֶץ אֶ׳ Dt 342 Ju 1215 2C 3010; זֶרַע אֶ׳ Jr 715 †; עָרֵי אֶ׳ 2C 172 †; —5. the Ephraimites, the members of 2, 3 and 4; אִישׁ אֶ׳ Ju 724 81 121 †; בְּנֵי אֶ׳ Nu 132 218 and oft., Jos 165.8f 178 1C 93 2C 257 2812; —6. אֶ׳ n.loc.? N of Jerusalem 2S 1323, cf. 1 Macc 1134 John 1154, Alt PJb 24:13f, 32ff; Noth Gesch. Isr. 60; alt. rd. *עֶפְרַיִם (Sept.L Γοφραιμ, → עֲפְרַיִן 2C 1310 Q = עָפְרָה, Abel 2:318; Simons Geog. §774-775; —7. שַׁעַר אֶ׳ a northern gate of Jerusalem (Dalman Jerus. 84, 236; Simons Jerus. 234, 276ff) 2K 1413 Neh 816 1239 2C 2523. —Ps 789 rd. בָּנִים פְּרֻצִים.

Koehler, L., Baumgartner, W., Richardson, M. E. J., & Stamm, J. J. (1994–2000). The Hebrew and Aramaic lexicon of the Old Testament (electronic ed., pp. 80–81). Leiden: E.J. Brill.

Ephraim
Ephraim primarily refers to the central hill country of Palestine, including the tribal territory of both Ephraim and Manasseh. Ephraim was the name of Joseph’s second son (Gen 41:52). Jacob adopted Ephraim (Gen 48:5) and his brother, Manasseh, and allotted them full status among his sons. Joshua 16:5–10 describes the borders of Ephraim’s allotted territory in the promised land, but their central area of control was the hill country of Ephraim, sometimes mentioned jointly with the territory of Manasseh (see Deut 34:2). This region encompassed the western section of the Jordanian mountainous area from around Bethel in the south to the plain of Jezreel in the north. The tribe of Ephraim settled in the more fertile southern part of this region. The cities of Shechem and Samaria are in the center of this region.

Barry, J. D., Mangum, D., Brown, D. R., Heiser, M. S., Custis, M., Ritzema, E., … Bomar, D. (2012, 2016). Faithlife Study Bible (Ho 4:17). Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press.

Judah

3373 יְהוּדָה (yehû·ḏā(h)): n.pr.; ≡ Str 3063; TWOT 850c—1. LN 93-pers. Judah: 1. son of Jacob-Leah (Ge 29:35) 2. ancestor of returnees from captivity with Zerubbabel (Ezr 3:9), note: for NIV text in Ezr 3:9, see 2088 3. divorcee from foreign wife (Ezr 10:23) 4. of Benjamin, overseer in Jerusalem (Ne 11:9) 5. returnee from the captivity with Zerubbabel (Ne 12:8) 6. of Judah, dedicator of the restored walls of Jerusalem (Ne 12:34) 7. musician, helping in wall dedication (Ne 12:36) 8. see DBLGrk 2676, DBLGrk 2683 9. (Yaudi NIV) owner of land retaken by Jeroboam (1Ki 14:28), note: some identify as 1; 2. LN 93-pers. (tribe) Jews: pertaining to Judah (Nu 1:7)

יְהוּדָה (yehû·ḏā(h)): n.pr.; ≡ Str 3063; TWOT 850c—LN 93-place (loc.) Judah: 1. land of (Dt 34:2) 2. kingdom of (2Ch 11:17)

Swanson, J. (1997). Dictionary of Biblical Languages with Semantic Domains : Hebrew (Old Testament) (electronic ed.). Oak Harbor: Logos Research Systems, Inc.

(820 times), SamP.M102 yēʾūda, Sept. Ιουδα: BArm. and Heb. inscriptions (BASOR 197:30, 32) יְהוּד, הרי יהד Kh. Bēt-Lei, > Arb. Yahūd (Brockelmann Grundriss 1:3981 :: Albright JBL 46:172ff), cun. as Arm. Yaudu, Yaḫ/kudu (Mél. Syr. 2:926; Wiseman Chaldaean Kings 72 line 12); etym. uncertain → Noth Welt 50f; JLewy HUCA 18:479; Nyberg Hosea 77ff; Eissfeldt FuF 38:20ff; RGG 3:963f; Reicke-R. Hw. 898: Judah.
—1. n.terr., the tribe of Judah; orig. הַר יְה׳ Jos 207 (Alt Kl. Schr. 1:51; Noth Jos. 125); Ju 13 along with Simeon; בְּנֵי יְה׳ 1C 41 מַטֵּה בְּנֵי יְה׳ Jos 151 שֵׁבֶט יְה׳ Jos 716, מַטֵּה יְה׳ Ex 312 אִישׁ יְה׳ (collective) Ju 1510 אַנְשֵׁי יְה׳ 2S 24.
—2. eponymous hero, Judah son of Jacob Gn 2935 3523 3726 381ff 433.8 4414.16.18 4628 498 Ru 412 1C 21.3; בְּנֵי יְה׳ Gn 4612 Nu 2619 1C 23f.
—3. kingdom and state of Judah: Gn 4910 (:: Gaster VT 4:73: for מִיְה׳ cj. מִיָּדוֹ) Lam 13 (fem. !); a) אֶרֶץ יְה׳ Am 712 Neh 514 בֵּית יְה׳ Is 2221 cj. Mi 15 אַדְמַת יְה׳ Is 1917 עָרֵי יְה׳ 4426 מַלְכֵי יְה׳ 1K 1429 פַּחַת יְה׳ Hg 11.14, אִישׁ יְה׳ Is 53 (:: יֹשֵׁב יְרוּשָׁלֵם), אַנְשֵׁי יְה׳ 1K 19, בְּנֵי יְה׳ Jr 730, יְה׳ וְיִשְׂרָאֵל 236; b) the land and its inhabitants: יְרוּשׁ׳ וִיה׳ Is 31.8 (masc., 1QIsa fem. following 8aα) 53 2221 יְהוּ׳ וִירוּשׁ׳ 11 אִישׁ יְה׳ וְישְׁבֵי יְרוּ׳ 2K 232 Jr 44 1720 1811; Jerusalem in Judah Ezr 12 (→ Fschr. Galling 71); ? לִיה׳ בְּיִשְׂר׳ 2K 1428 (? rd. לְיִשְׂר׳; Montgomery-G. 444, 446; :: Driver ErIsr. 5:1820: ? NSyr. Yaudu (Gordon JNES 14:56ff; Segert ArchOr; 24:400f); —Ιουδαία with variants Act 29 = Γορδυαία, the Adiabene who have become Jews (Eissfeldt Kl. Schr. 4:99, 115ff, 127ff.; Altheim- S. Araber 2:70ff).
—4. province of Judah Hg 11.14 22.21 Neh 514.
—5. n.m. (excluding 2 ? as “Biblical” name: → Hölscher Fschr. Marti 150f; Noth 60): a) Levite Ezr 39 and Neh 128 (rd. הוֹדַוְיָה Rudolph :: Hölscher; Galling); b) Levite Ezr 1023; c) Benjaminite Neh 119; d) and e) priests 1234; 36.
—? Jos 1934; 2C 2528 rd. דָּוִיד.

Koehler, L., Baumgartner, W., Richardson, M. E. J., & Stamm, J. J. (1994–2000). The Hebrew and Aramaic lexicon of the Old Testament (electronic ed., p. 394). Leiden: E.J. Brill.

Gilead
1680 גִּלְעָד (gil·ʿāḏ): n.pr. [see also 1680.5]; ≡ Str 1568; TWOT 356—LN 93-place (loc.) Gilead: 1. a city (Hos 6:8) 2. a territory (Nu 32:29; Jos 17:6; 22:13; 2Sa 17:26; 2Ki 10:33); also part of a compound name, Jabesh Gilead, see 3316; Ramoth Gilead, see 8240

גִּלְעָד (gil·ʿāḏ): n.pr. [served by 1680]; ≡ Str 1568; TWOT 356—LN 93-pers. (male) Gilead: 1. see 1680 2. of Manasseh (Nu 26:29, 30) 3. father of judge Jephthah Jdg 11:1, 2 4. (gent.) family of the territory of Gad (1Ch 5:14), see also 1682

Swanson, J. (1997). Dictionary of Biblical Languages with Semantic Domains : Hebrew (Old Testament) (electronic ed.). Oak Harbor: Logos Research Systems, Inc.

; expl. (→ גַּלְעֵד) Gn 3147; Ug. glʿd n.l., n.pop., cun. Galʾaza (Forrer 61ff); *געד, Arb. jaʿuda to be rough (cheek), jalʿad rough; < *giʿʿād (Koehler ThZ 2:314f), preserved in Kh. Jalʿā/ūd S of יַבֹּק; Gilead, Γαλααδῖτις 1Macc 517 and oft., cj. Josephus Ant. xviii:5, 1 (Schürer 1:445); Pauly-W. 7:511f; Abel 1:276; Noth Welt 57; Reicke-R. 571; Simons Geog. §93, 1124, transferred from Jalʿā/ūd Jelʿad NE of es-Salṭ: —1. Gilead, n.top.: orig. name of a small area; n.loc. Ju 1017 Hos 68 1212 ?; later of the land east of the Jordan north of Arnon; יַבֹּק divides Gilead into two parts חֲצִי הַגִּ׳ Jos 122 :: v.5; northern part chiefly called Gilead; הַר הַגִּ׳ Gn 3121.23.25 גִּ׳ Gn 3725 Dt 312 Zech 1010 Ps 609 1089; הַגִּ׳ Dt 443 Jos 208 2138 Am 113; Jos 1311 Ju 108 1129; אֶרֶץ הַגִּ׳ Jos 229.13.15.32 Ju 104 201 2S 29 (rd. עַל) 1726 2K 1033 1C 222; אֶרֶץ גִּ׳ || אֶרֶץ יַעְזֵר Nu 321 1C 59; 1K 419 (? rd. אֶרֶץ גָּד Sept.BL, → BH); מִזְרָח לַגִּ׳ 1C 510, הַגִּ׳ וְהַבָּשָׁן Dt 310 2K 1033 Mi 714 1C 516 (?) אֶרֶץ גָּד וְגִ׳ 1S 137; גִּלְעָד unimportant to Y. Jr 226; → Nu 3239 1C 2721; Nu 3240 Dt 236 315f 341 Jos 171 Am 13; Dt 313; Jos 122; 125 1331; 2S 246; 2K 1529 Jr 5019 Ezk 4718 Ob 19 Song 65; balm from Gilead Jr 822 4611 (ironically, Hempel Heilung 239); Song 41; 1C 2631; עָרֵי הַגִּ׳ Nu 3226 Jos 1325, (Ju 127 בְּעָרֵי ג׳, cj. בְּעִירוֹ = מִצְפֵּה גִּ׳ :: Kutscher Lesh. 21:109: = אֶרֶץ גִּ׳, Arb. balad); → n.loc. III יָבֵשׁ, מִצְפֶּה, רָאמוֹת and רָמֹת, cj. תִּשְׁבֵּי 1K 171; Ju 73 rd. וַיִּצְרְפֵם גִּדְעוֹן; † —2. n.pop. בְּנֵי גִ׳ Nu 361 Ju 517 (:: Noth System 12; St. 36) 124f; גִּ׳ בְּתוֹךְ אֶפְרַיִם Ju 124b; † —3. n.loc. הַגִּ׳ Ju 1017 = גִּ׳ Hos 68 and 1212, Noth PJb 75:35f; Simons Geog. §1467-8; שָׂרֵי גִ׳ Ju 1018 יֹשְׁבֵי גִ׳ Ju 1018 118, זִקְנֵי ג׳ 115.7-11, אַנְשֵׁי ג׳ 124f; † —4. n.m. a) son of מָכִיר Nu 2629f 271 Jos 171.3 Ju 111f 1C 221.23 714.17; b) 1C 514. †
Der. גִּלְעָדִי.

Koehler, L., Baumgartner, W., Richardson, M. E. J., & Stamm, J. J. (1994–2000). The Hebrew and Aramaic lexicon of the Old Testament (electronic ed., pp. 194–195). Leiden: E.J. Brill.

Shechem

II שְׁכֶם: place name, = I שְׁכֶם 2b; SamP. aškəm; on the linguistic status of the word as a place name cf. Priebatsch UF 9 (1977) 253: it has the accent on the ultimate syllable as in Amorite, and there is elision of the vowel in the penultimate syllable (cf. Yebús, Senír, meṣád); Sept. Συχεμ, Σικιμα; Josephus Σίκιμα (Schalit Namenwb. 112); Heb. inscr. שכם (Samaritan Ostracon 44:1); Egyptian Sekmem, or alternatively Skmimi, so Jaroš Sichem (OBO 11; 1976) 99-101; see also Pritchard Texts 230 and 3298; according to Albright BASOR 81 (1941) 1811 the Egyptian forms correspond to Sakmâni or to Sakmêni “two shoulders”; Albright Vocalization 55 proposes Eg. Sa-ka-ma; Knudtzon El-Amarna letter 289:23: mātuša-ak-mi; see also p. 1343; Ebla ší-é-amki cf. Dahood-Pettinato Orientalia 46 (1977) 231 and note 7: locative שְׁכֶֽמָה (SamP. aškēma Gn 3714), Gn 3714, שֶֽׁכְמָה Hos 69, מְקוֹם שְׁ׳ Gn 126, עִיר שְׁ׳ Gn 3318, מִגְדַּל שְׁ׳ Ju 946.47.49: Shechem, an ancient Canaanite city in the mountains of Ephraim, between Ebal and Gerizim; on the identification of the site see Alt Kl. Schr. 3: 246, and subsequently Galling Bibl. Reallex.2 293f. Ancient Shechem is identified with Tell Balaṭa, cf. Simons Geog. §340f, 578; Abel Géogr. Pal. 2: 458-60; Jaroš Sichem 11-16; for further bibliography see below; since Vespasian the place was known as Flavia Neapolis corresponding to Nablus: Gn 126 3318 354 3712.14 Jos 177 207 2121 241.25.32 Ju 831 91-41 2119 1K 121.25 Jr 415 Hos 69 Ps 608/1088 1C 652 728 2C 101. †
Bibliography (selected): Nielsen Shechem; Wright Shechem; Wright “Shechem”, in Winton Thomas Archaeology 355-370; for further ideas of Wright on the subject see Galling Bibl. Reallex.2 296b; de Vaux Histoire 2:108ff; Jaroš Sichem (see above); Gray Kings3 303f; Keller ZAW 67 (1955) 143-154; RGG3 6:15; Galling Bibl. Reallex.2 293-296; Reicke-Rost Hw. 1781-1783.

Koehler, L., Baumgartner, W., Richardson, M. E. J., & Stamm, J. J. (1994–2000). The Hebrew and Aramaic lexicon of the Old Testament (electronic ed., pp. 1495–1496). Leiden: E.J. Brill.

llllllllllll

vvvvvvv

jjjjjjjj

Holman Books of Biblical Charts, Maps and Reconstruction by Logos Bible Software.

4:15 Gilgal Probably a reference to the Gilgal near Jericho, where Israel camped during the conquest. Joshua had set up 12 stones there as a memorial (Josh 4:1–8, 19–24). The site later became an important religious center (1 Sam 7:16; 10:8; 11:14–15). The prophet Amos also criticizes Gilgal for religious infidelity (Amos 4:4; 5:5).

Beth-aven The prophet may be referring to a city in the territory of Benjamin, located near the border with Ephraim. Or he may be making an indirect and derogatory reference to the Israelite shrine at Bethel, located in the territory of Ephraim (see Amos 5:5).

4:17 Ephraim Hosea uses the name Ephraim to refer to the whole northern kingdom of Israel 37 times. The hill country of Ephraim was the core of Israelite territory; it was where Samaria, the capital, and the important city of Shechem were located. Ephraim was traditionally one of the strongest tribes of the northern kingdom.

Barry, J. D., Mangum, D., Brown, D. R., Heiser, M. S., Custis, M., Ritzema, E., … Bomar, D. (2012, 2016). Faithlife Study Bible (Ho 4:15–17). Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press.

Mizpah A city in the territory of Benjamin on the border with Israel. See note on Jer 40:6.

Tabor A mountain on the northern side of the Jezreel Valley. See note on Jer 46:18.

Barry, J. D., Mangum, D., Brown, D. R., Heiser, M. S., Custis, M., Ritzema, E., … Bomar, D. (2012, 2016). Faithlife Study Bible (Ho 5:1). Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press.

Gibeah A city in the territory of Benjamin, the hometown of King Saul (1 Sam 10:26).

Ramah A city in the territory of Benjamin, not far from Gibeah (see note on Jer 31:15). Ramah (or Ramathaim) was the home of the prophet Samuel (see 1 Sam 1:1 and note).

Barry, J. D., Mangum, D., Brown, D. R., Heiser, M. S., Custis, M., Ritzema, E., … Bomar, D. (2012, 2016). Faithlife Study Bible (Ho 5:8). Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press.

holleygerth.com

Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s