Finding Yourself In Hosea 12

Leviticus 8:12 (ESV)

12 And he poured some of the anointing oil on Aaron’s head and anointed him to consecrate him.

Psalm 133

English Standard Version
When Brothers Dwell in Unity

A Song of Ascents. Of David.

1Behold, how good and pleasant it is
when brothers dwell in unity!a
2It is like the precious oil on the head,
running down on the beard,
on the beard of Aaron,
running down on the collar of his robes!
3It is like the dew of Hermon,
which falls on the mountains of Zion!
For there the LORD has commanded the blessing,
life forevermore.

1 Peter 2:9 (ESV)

9 But you are a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a people for his own possession, that you may proclaim the excellencies of him who called you out of darkness into his marvelous light.

Psalm 133

Here the Psalmist David described the beauty of unity that exists among brethren.

A. The goodness of unity (133:1)

133:1. In this short pilgrim psalm David exclaimed how wonderful it is for believers to dwell together in unity. This thought was appropriate for the religious festivals when Israelite families came together to worship their Lord.

B. The description of unity (133:2–3)

133:2. David compared the unity mentioned in verse 1 to the oil that consecrated Aaron (cf. Lev. 8:12). This imagery from the priesthood was appropriate because of the pilgrims being in Jerusalem. The oil poured on Aaron’s head flowed down on his beard and shoulders, and onto the breastplate with the names of all 12 tribes. The oil thus symbolized the unity of the nation in worship under their consecrated priest. As the oil consecrated Aaron, so the unity of the worshipers in Jerusalem would consecrate the nation under God.
133:3. David then compared the unity mentioned in verse 1 to the dew that covers the mountains. The picture of oil running down (v. 2) no doubt suggested dew coming down from Mount Hermon in the north onto Mount Zion. The dew of Hermon was heavy; it symbolized what was freshening and invigorating. The refreshing influence of the worshiping community on the nation was similar to the dew on vegetation. This was a fitting symbol of the Lord’s blessing on His people.

Ross, A. P. (1985). Psalms. In J. F. Walvoord & R. B. Zuck (Eds.), The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures (Vol. 1, p. 888). Wheaton, IL: Victor Books.


Word Study On ‘Command’

ṣā·wā(h)): v.; ≡ Str 6680; TWOT 1887—1. LN 33.323–33.332 (piel) command, order, tell, instruct, give direction, decree, i.e., state with force/authority what others must do (Ge 2:16); (pual) commanded, directed, be ordered (Ge 45:19; Ex 34:34; Lev 8:35; 10:13; Nu 3:16; 36:2; Eze 12:7; 24:18; 37:7+); 2. LN 37.96–37.107 (piel) appoint, ordain, give charge, i.e., assign one to a role or function for a task or office, with a focus on the authority of the one who appointed the leader (1Sa 25:30); 3. LN 13.104–13.163 (piel) be forbidden, i.e., pertaining to what does not happen, as it is not allowed by an authority (Dt 4:23), note: for another parsing in Isa 28:10, 13, see 7417; note: further study may yield more domains

Swanson, J. (1997). Dictionary of Biblical Languages with Semantic Domains : Hebrew (Old Testament) (electronic ed.). Oak Harbor: Logos Research Systems, Inc

33.323 κελεύω; διαστέλλομαι: to state with force and/or authority what others must do—‘to order, to command.’
κελεύω: ἐκέλευσεν αὐτὸν ὁ κύριος πραθῆναι ‘his master ordered him to be sold as a slave’ Mt 18:25.
διαστέλλομαι: διεστείλατο αὐτοῖς ἵνα μηδενὶ λέγωσιν ‘he ordered them not to speak of it to anyone’ Mk 7:36.
In a number of languages the equivalent of ‘to order’ or ‘to command’ is ‘to speak with strength’ or ‘to speak strong words’ or, in the form of direct discourse, ‘to tell others, You must …’

Louw, J. P., & Nida, E. A. (1996). Greek-English lexicon of the New Testament: based on semantic domains (electronic ed. of the 2nd edition., Vol. 1, p. 424). New York: United Bible Societies.

37.96 τάσσωa; ὁρίζωb; ἀναδείκνυμιb; τίθημιb: to assign someone to a particular task, function, or role—‘to appoint, to designate, to assign, to give a task to.’
τάσσωa: ἐπίστευσαν ὅσοι ἦσαν τεταγμένοι εἰς ζωὴν αἰώνιον ‘those who had been designated for eternal life became believers’ Ac 13:48. Though τάσσω in Ac 13:48 has sometimes been interpreted as meaning ‘to choose,’ there seems to be far more involved than merely a matter of selection, since a relationship is specifically assigned.
ὁρίζωb: ὁ ὡρισμένος ὑπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ κριτής ‘the one designated by God as judge’ Ac 10:42.
ἀναδείκνυμιb: ἀνέδειξεν ὁ κύριος ἑτέρους ἑβδομήκοντα δύο ‘the Lord appointed another seventy-two men’ Lk 10:1.
τίθημιb: ἔθηκα ὑμᾶς ἵνα ὑμεῖς ὑπάγητε καὶ καρπὸν φέρητε ‘I appointed you to go and bear much fruit’ Jn 15:16.

Louw, J. P., & Nida, E. A. (1996). Greek-English lexicon of the New Testament: based on semantic domains (electronic ed. of the 2nd edition., Vol. 1, p. 482). New York: United Bible Societies.

Word Study On ‘Dew’

ṭǎl): n.masc.; ≡ Str 2919; TWOT 807a—LN 2.7–2.13 dew, night-mist, i.e., moisture condensed on surfaces, esp. at night, with the associative meanings of prosperity and abundance (1Ki 17:1), see also domain LN 14.17–14.35

Swanson, J. (1997). Dictionary of Biblical Languages with Semantic Domains : Hebrew (Old Testament) (electronic ed.). Oak Harbor: Logos Research Systems, Inc

807a טַל (ṭal) dew.

Ugaritic ṭl “dew” and verb ṭll “to fall” (of dew); UT 19: no. 1037. This masculine noun is from the assumed root ṭālal. The great difference between temperatures of night and day in Palestine causes heavy dews, which keep vegetation alive during the summer drought. The amount varies in different regions, but in Gaza there is dew 250 nights of the year. The Bible often notices this feature. One spending the night out of doors was “wet with dew” (Song 5:2). Considered a gift from the sky (Deut 33:28; Prov 3:20), dew was withheld by God for disobedience (Hag 1:10); was withheld along with rain by Elijah’s prayer (I Kgs 17:1); but was given in times of God’s favor (Zech 8:12). Hence dew was considered a blessing (Gen 27:28) and the lack of it was a privation (Gen 27:39) or a curse (II Sam 1:21). Job is unable to answer who has begotten it (Job 38:28).
Morning dew in the wilderness was accompanied by manna which remained when the dew had evaporated (Ex 16:13–14; Num 11:9). The sign to Gideon, dew being on the fleece but not on the surrounding ground, was then reversed, the ground being wet and the fleece dry (Jud 6:37–40), which would be just as unusual.
Figuratively, God’s and the king’s favor (Prov 19:12), man’s speech (Deut 32:2), and the blessings of unity of brethren (Ps 133:3) are compared to the fall of dew. God’s quiet watching is as a cloud of dew (Isa 18:4). Job’s former prosperity is compared to dew on branches (Job 29:19). An unexpected attack (II Sam 17:12), Jacob’s influence among the nations (Mic 5:7 [H 6]), and the vigor of youth (Ps 110:3) are all also compared to dew. Israel in their unfaithfulness were like the dew that goes away early (Hos 6:4; 13:3).

Bibliography: Baly, Denis, The Geography of the Bible, 1957, pp. 43–45.

Lewis, J. P. (1999). 807 טלל. R. L. Harris, G. L. Archer Jr., & B. K. Waltke (Eds.), Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament (electronic ed., pp. 348–349). Chicago: Moody Press.

Word Study On ‘Oil’

14.17 ῥέω; ῥύσις, εως f: the movement of a liquid in some direction—‘to flow, a flow.’6 ῥέω: καθὼς εἶπεν ἡ γραφή, ποταμοὶ ἐκ τῆς κοιλίας αὐτοῦ ῥεύσουσιν ὕδατος ζῶντος ‘as the scripture says, Streams of living water will flow from his heart’ Jn 7:38. In the NT ῥέω occurs only in the figurative context of Jn 7:38.
ῥύσις: γυνὴ οὖσα ἐν ῥύσει αἵματος δώδεκα ἔτη ‘the woman had had a hemorrhage for twelve years’ Mk 5:25.
In a number of languages a term referring to the flow of liquid may also be applied to the movement of any object, so that a literal rendering might be ‘the liquid moved.’ However, terms for ‘flow’ or ‘pour’ often differ substantially on the basis of the direction of the flow. For example, if the flow is relatively horizontal, and therefore slow, it may have one term, while if it is quite fast, another expression may be used, and if the flow is almost perpendicular (as in the case of pouring), a still different term is employed.

Louw, J. P., & Nida, E. A. (1996). Greek-English lexicon of the New Testament: based on semantic domains (electronic ed. of the 2nd edition., Vol. 1, p. 169). New York: United Bible Societies.

3203 III. טוֹב (ṭôḇ): adj.; ≡ Str 2897;—LN 6.205–6.212 perfumed, spiced, i.e., pertaining to fragrant herbs and materials (2Ki 20:13; Isa 39:2; Jer 6:20; SS 7:10[EB 9], note: some place these verses under 3202)

Swanson, J. (1997). Dictionary of Biblical Languages with Semantic Domains : Hebrew (Old Testament) (electronic ed.). Oak Harbor: Logos Research Systems, Inc.

6.205 μύρον, ου n: a strongly aromatic and expensive ointment—‘perfume, perfumed oil.’ βαλοῦσα γὰρ αὕτη τὸ μύρον τοῦτο ἐπὶ τοῦ σώματός μου πρὸς τὸ ἐνταφιάσαι με ἐποίησεν ‘she has prepared me for burial by pouring this perfume on my body’ Mt 26:12; ἡτοίμασαν ἀρώματα καὶ μύρα ‘they prepared aromatic oils and perfumes’ Lk 23:56. μύρον as a ‘perfume’ may be rendered as ‘sweet- smelling oil’ or ‘fragrant oil.’ In Lk 23:56 one may use a descriptive phrase such as ‘perfumed oil for preserving the body’ or ‘… to keep the body from rotting.’

Louw, J. P., & Nida, E. A. (1996). Greek-English lexicon of the New Testament: based on semantic domains (electronic ed. of the 2nd edition., Vol. 1, p. 77). New York: United Bible Societies.



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